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Treatment, Diagnosis, and Surgery for Scoliosis in India

The disorder known as scoliosis causes the spine to curve sideways. When viewed from the side, the spine is typically partly curved, but when viewed from the front, it must appear straight. In-depth discussion of scoliosis symptoms, signs, and treatments will be provided in this article.

Causes – 

The most frequent causes of scoliosis have been discovered by the experts and are listed below, despite the fact that the actual reason is unknown.

A collection of neurological conditions known as cerebral palsy can impair movement, learning, hearing, vision, and thinking.

A set of hereditary diseases known as muscular dystrophy weakens muscles.

birth problems that disrupt the development of the spinal cord in neonates, such as spina bifida, in which the spinal cord is not fully formed.

further infections or spinal damage.

The family’s genetic heritage.

It has been found that girls are more likely than boys to acquire scoliosis.

Symptoms –

Scoliosis is usually manifested in the form of the following symptoms,

  • Uneven buttocks

  • Uneven waistline

  • Prominent ribs on one side

  • Tilted shoulders

  • One shoulder blade may be higher than the other

  • Back pain
  • The prominence of one shoulder more than the other

  • Rotation of spine

  • Reduced chest area for expansion of lungs causing difficulty breathing

If the curvature is slight, it is not noticeable until the child enters puberty and experiences a growth spurt.

How is it diagnosed?

The most common forms of investigations used for diagnosing scoliosis is the physical exam and the radiological examination.

The examination of the body

This involves carefully examining the back while standing with the arms by one’s sides. Along with the placement of the shoulders and waist, the spine’s curvature is carefully inspected. To check for any upper or lower back curves, one is instructed to stoop forward.

The “Adam’s forward bend test” is a common screening procedure. The young person is instructed to bend forward while keeping their feet together, knees straight, and arms hanging freely. The doctor examines the back to see if there are any differences in how the ribs on each side are shaped. In this position, a spinal abnormality can be most readily seen.

The youngster will then need to stand up straight, and the doctor will determine.

If the head is positioned so that it is directly over the hips and the shoulders and hips are at the same level.

Finally, any disparity in limb length is also examined, along with any neurological or physical anomalies.

studies using radio imaging

These tests, which include the ones below, are used to confirm the differential diagnosis made during the physical examination.

X-ray

CT scan

an MRI

body scan

The therapy choices consist of,

Watch and see: The chances of the issue going worse are slim if the spinal curvature is less than 25 degrees or if the child is almost completely grown. By having x-rays taken during checkups every six to twelve months, one can wait and monitor the situation periodically.

Bracing – If the child is still growing and the curve ranges from 25 to 45 degrees, bracing is the preferred treatment. While it does not straighten the curve, it does stop it from worsening and postpone surgery. There are various kinds of braces. The majority of them are adjusted for the child.

Surgery is the last remaining course of action. Spinal fusion surgery is the most popular procedure.

It entails employing materials like bone graft, rods, and screws to fuse the vertebrae together. The bone transplant is made of a substance that resembles bone. The rod maintains the spine’s straight position, and screws are utilised to secure them. The rod can be altered at different times as the child develops since the bone transplant eventually fuses with the vertebrae. The greatest spine surgeons in India perform it.

Among the dangers connected to the procedure are:

a lot of blood

delayed recovery

Infection

Pain

injury to the nearby nerve

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