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A bone marrow transplant (BMT) is a special procedure performed to replace either the destroyed or damaged bone marrow with healthy bone marrow. Bone marrow is soft and fatty tissue present inside the bone, which produces the blood cells.
Various acute and chronic ailments may affect the functioning of the bone marrow and may require bone marrow transplants. Some of the similar conditions are listed below:
This is cancer that develops in a type of white blood cell.
This is a rare disease that occurs when amyloid (an abnormal protein, usually produced in the bone marrow) is deposited in any tissue or organ and interferes with its normal functions. Depending upon the type of amyloidosis, a bone marrow transplant may be recommended.
It is a cancer of blood or bone marrow that may eventually need a bone marrow transplant in certain high-risk subtypes.
These are the cancer of lymphocytes (type of white blood cell). These lymphocytes play a vital role in the immune system.
This is a rare type of blood cancer where bone marrow is replaced by fibrous scar tissue. Bone marrow transplant is a treatment that might be considered for patients suffering from this medical condition.
These are kinds of tumors where there is the growth of cell form from reproductive cells. They are both cancerous or non-cancerous and mainly occur in the ovaries or the testicles.
These disorders lead to abnormally low activity or overactivity of the immune system. Overactivity of the immune system leads the body to attack and damage its own tissues (autoimmune diseases). Low activity of the immune system reduces the body’s ability to fight invaders, making it more vulnerable to infections.
Aplastic Anemia or Myelodysplastic syndrome in which the bone marrow is unable to form blood cells.
Some patients after receiving chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer may need a bone marrow transplant.
There are 3 different types of bone marrow transplant:
This is a type of bone marrow transplant where your own cells are utilized. Before receiving a high dose of radiation or chemotherapy, your cells are removed and stored in the freezer. After receiving radiation or chemotherapy treatments, these cells are put back in your body to help in making normal blood cells. This is also called a rescue transplant.
This is a type of bone marrow transplant where cells are removed from another person (donor). Most times, the genes of the donor must at least partly match your genes. Before initiating the process, some special tests are done to see if a donor is a good match for you. A sibling is most likely to be a good match. However, sometimes children, parents, and other relatives are also suitable matches. In some cases, donors who are not related to you but matches you, are considered.
This transplant is a type of allogeneic transplant. In this process, cells are removed from a new born baby’s umbilical cord right after birth. These cells are frozen and stored until they are needed for a transplant in the future. Umbilical cord blood cells are quite immature, so there is less of a need for perfect matching. Due to the lesser number of cells, blood counts may take much longer to recover.
Before undergoing this procedure, you may need to undergo rigorous evaluation, which includes: