cancer treatment in india

Cervix / Cervical Cancer Treatment in India | Medserg Health

Cervix / Cervical Cancer Treatment in India
Cervical cancer occurs when cells in the cervix grow out of control. A group of abnormal cells together can form a malignant (cancerous) tumor.
Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which cells that are not normal begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Later, cancer cells start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas.
Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by a virus called Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV can cause cells in the cervix to grow abnormally and become cancerous.

Cervical cancer /Cervix Cancer- Sign and Symptoms:-

The symptoms of cervical /cervix cancer are given below.
·         1. Irregular and abnormal vaginal bleeding
·         2. Vaginal discharge
·         3. Difficulty urinating
·         4. Pelvic pain or back pain
·         5. Swollen legs
·         6. Abnormal bleeding – Women with cervical cancer may experience abnormal vaginal bleeding. This can be heavy or light bleeding during the month
         7. Unusual heavy discharge – An increased vaginal discharge is also a symptom of cervical cancer. It may be foul smelling, watery, thick, or contain mucus. It varies from woman to woman. It is important to report any unusual vaginal discharge to your doctor.
·         8. Bleeding between regular menstrual periods, after intercourse, douching, or pelvic exam – Bleeding after sexual intercourse, douching, or pelvic exam can be cervical cancer symptoms. This is due to the irritation of the cervix during these activities. While a healthy cervix may have a very small amount of bleeding.
Some of the risk factors cervix cancer include:
·         Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection
·         Lack of regular PAP tests
·         Smoking
·         Weakened immune system
·         Chlamydia infection
·         Diet
·         Being overweight
·         Use of oral contraception
·         Multiple full-term pregnancies
·         Young age at the first full-term pregnancy: Women with their first full-term pregnancy before the age of 17 are twice as likely to develop cervical cancer
·         Family history
·         Diethylstilbestrol (DES): Use of this hormonal drug to prevent miscarriages increases the risk for cervical cancer
Prevention of cervix cancer
Cervical cancer vaccine: Is the first vaccine ever designed to prevent cancer. It is recommended to girls aged 11 to 12 years as it allows a girl’s immune system to be activated before she’s likely to encounter HPV.
Important Tests
Pap test: Cells are collected from the surface of the cervix and checked on a slide. This test is available at most hospitals and clinics for cervix cancer treatment in India
HPV test: Doctors take DNA cells by swabbing the cervix. The HPV test is ideal for the detection of cervical cancer. It is slightly more accurate than the pap test, but is not recommended for woman below 30 years of age.
Methods of Treatment 
The recommended list of effective therapies for cervical cancer treatment are given below, recommended treatments are based on years of studies by experts.
Women with cervical cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, or a combination .
At any stage of disease, women with cervical cancer may have treatment to control pain and other symptoms, to relieve the side effects of therapy, and to ease emotional and practical problems. This kind of treatment is called supportive care, symptom management, or palliative care.
Cryosurgical Ablation (CSA)  for cervix cancer treatment in India.
Cryosurgery is an important ablation technique for tumors. It destroys tumors by cycles of freezing and thawing. Cryosurgery’s destructive effects on tumors are due to two major mechanisms, one immediate, the other delayed. The immediate mechanism is the damaging effect of freezing and thawing the cells.
 Cryosurgery is performed through introperative, endoscopic or per-cutaneous routes depending upon the location and size of tumor.
 Seed Knife Therapy (Brachytherapy) for cervix cancer treatment in India
Seed implantation with iodine-125 or palladium-103 seeds (brachytherapy) is a highly effective treatment for patients with cancer. Brachytherapy requires no surgical incision, offers patients a shorter recovery time, and has less chance of troubling side effects.
 Combined Immunotherapy for cervix cancer treatment in India
 This is focused on increasing of the body’s natural immune functions against cancer cells. This treatment has had some of the most exciting and consistently successful results.
 Targeted or Interventional Therapy
Surgery for cervix cancer treatment in India
Surgery treats cancer in the cervix and the area close to the tumor.
Most women with early cervical cancer have surgery to remove the cervix and uterus (total hysterectomy). However, for very early (Stage 0) cervical cancer, a hysterectomy may not be needed. Other ways to remove the cancerous tissue include conization, cryosurgery, laser surgery, or LEEP.
Some women need a radical hysterectomy. A radical hysterectomy is a surgery to remove the uterus, cervix, and part of the vagina.
With either total or radical hysterectomy, the surgeon may remove both fallopian tubes and ovaries. (This procedure is a salpingo-oophorectomy.)
The surgeon may also remove the lymph nodes near the tumor to see if they contain cancer. If cancer cells have reached the lymph nodes, it means the disease may have spread to other parts of the body.
Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. It affects cells only in the treated area.
Women have radiation therapy alone, with chemotherapy, or with chemotherapy and surgery. The doctor may suggest radiation therapy instead of surgery for the small number of women who cannot have surgery for medical reasons. Most women with cancer that extends beyond the cervix have radiation therapy and chemotherapy. For cancer that has spread to distant organs, radiation therapy alone may be used.
Doctors use two types of radiation therapy to treat cervical cancer. Some women receive both types:
External radiation: The radiation comes from a large machine outside the body. The woman usually has treated as an outpatient in a hospital or clinic. She receives external radiation 5 days a week for several weeks.
Internal radiation (intracavitary radiation): Thin tubes (also called implants) containing a radioactive substance are left in the vagina for a few hours or up to 3 days. The woman may stay in the hospital during that time. To protect others from the radiation, the woman may not be able to have visitors or may have visitors for only a short period of time while the tubes are in place. Once the tubes are removed, no radioactivity is left in her body. Internal radiation may be repeated two or more times over several weeks.
Chemotherapy for cervix cancer treatment in India
Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. It is called systemic therapy because the drugs enter the bloodstream and can affect cells all over the body. For the treatment of cervical cancer, chemotherapy is generally combined with radiation therapy. For cancer that has spread to distant organs, chemotherapy alone may be used.
Anticancer drugs for cervical cancer are usually given through a vein. Women usually receive treatment in an outpatient part of the hospital, at the doctor’s office, or at home. Rarely, a woman needs to stay in the hospital during treatment.


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